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Indeclinables - Avyay (अव्यय) | Learn Sanskrit

 

Avyay (अव्यय) for beginners :

In this article you will learn about Indeclinables - Avyay (अव्यय)  in sanskrit with list of Avyay which can be used in class 6th to 10th and even for higher classes. 

1. धिक् – hatred – Vocative, Accusative

  • धिक् मूर्ख | (Voc. Sing) – I hate, you fool!
  • धिक् दुर्जनाः | (Voc. Plu) – I hate, you wicked!
  • धिक् भ्रष्टाचारम् | (Acc. Sing) – I hate corruption.

 
2.अभितः/परितः/सर्वतः – around – Accusative

  • शालाम् अभितः क्रीडाङ्गणम् अस्ति | (Acc. Sing) - There is a playground around the school
  • गृहं परितः उद्यानम् अस्ति | (Acc. Sing) – There is a garden around the house
  • उद्यानं सर्वतः वृक्षाः सन्ति | (Acc. Sing) – There are trees all around the garden

 
3.विना – without – Accusative/Instrumental/Ablative

  • जलं विना जीवनं व्यर्थम् | (Acc. Sing) – There is no life without water
  • विद्यया विना किं जीवनम्? (Ins. Sing) – What is life without knowledge?
  • जलात् विना मत्स्याः न जीवन्ति | (Abl. Sing) – Fishes die without water

 
4.समम्/सार्धम्/साकम्/सह – with - Instrumental (opposite of विना)

  • रामेण सह सीता वनम् अगच्छत् | (Ins. Sing) – Seeta went to the forest along with Ram
  • अहं मित्रेण समं पाठशालां गच्छामि | (Ins. Sing) – I go to the school with my friend
  • माला रमया सार्धं क्रीडन्ति | (Ins. Sing) – Mala plays with Rama

 
5.अलम् – enough – Instrumental

  • अलं चिन्तया | (Ins. Sing) - Do not worry
  • अलं भयेन | (Ins. Sing) - Do not be afraid

 
6.अलम् – to be enough/to be capable of – Dative

  • कृष्णः कंसाय अलम् | (Dat. Sing) - Krishna is capable of killing Kamsa
  • नकुलः सर्पाय अलम् | (Dat. Sing) – Mongoose is capable of killing the snake

 
7.नमः – to salute/bow to – Dative

  • श्रीगणेशाय नमः | (Dat. Sing) – I bow to Shree Ganesh
  • शिवाय नमः | (Dat. Sing) – I bow to Shiv
  • शारदायै नमः | (Dat. Sing) – I bow to Sharada

 
8.स्वस्ति - Wish for wellbeing – Dative

  • स्वस्ति छात्रेभ्यः | (Dat. Plu) – May all students be well
  • स्वस्ति जनेभ्यः | (Dat. Plu) – May all people be well


 
9.बहिः - out – Ablative

  • जलात् बहिः मत्स्याः न जीवन्ति | (Abl. Sing) – Fishes cannot live outside water
  • अहं गृहात् बहिः क्रीडामि | (Abl. Sing) – I play outside the house

 
10. उभयतः – on both the sides – Accusative

  • नगरम् उभयतः क्षेत्राणि सन्ति | (Acc. Sing) - There are farms on both sides of the city
  • पाठशालाम् उभयतः मार्गाः सन्ति | (Acc. Sing) – There are roads on both the sides of the school

 
11.प्रति – to/towards – Accusative

  • बालकः पाठशालां प्रति गच्छति | (Acc. Sing) – The boy goes to/towards the school
  • शिक्षकस्य छात्रां प्रति स्नेहः अस्ति | (Acc. Plu) – The teacher has affection towards his students

 
12. भयम्/भीतिः – to be scared of – Ablative

  • Note – These words are not indeclinables, but require this specific case only
  • मम सर्पात् भयं/ भीतिः अस्ति | (Abl. Sing) – I am scared of snakes
  • मम गणितविषयात् भयं/ भीतिः अस्ति | (Abl. Sing) – I am scared of maths

 
13. कृते – for/for the sake of – Genitive

  • बालकस्य कृते माता कन्दुकम् आनयति | (Gen. Sing) – The mother brings a ball for the boy
  • शिक्षणं जनानां कृते आवश्यकम् | (Gen. Plu) – Education is useful for the people

 
14.कुशल/प्रवीण/निपुण – proficient/skilled/expert – Locative

  • Note - These words are adjectives
  • हर्षदा चित्रकलायां कुशला/प्रवीणा/निपुणा अस्ति | (Loc. Sing) Harshada is expert in drawing
  • सुनीलः गायने कुशलः/प्रवीणः/निपुणः | (Loc. Sing) Sunil is skilled in singing

 
15. ऋते – without (ऋते = विना) – Ablative case only

  • जलात् ऋते मत्स्यः न जीवति | - (Abl. Sing) The fish cannot live without water
  • शिक्षणात् ऋते जीवनं व्यर्थम् | - (Abl. Sing) Without education, life is futile

 
16. नाम – means – no specific case

  • संस्कृतं नाम देवभाषा | Sanskrit means language of God
  • बालकाः नाम ईश्वरस्य पुत्राः | Children are sons of God



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Learn Sanskrit - Indeclinables - Avyay