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Learn Sanskrit - Pronoun Tables - A complete Reference

This artcile has various tables and charts of pronouns in Sanskrit. Download the PDF at the end. Study the declensions of pronouns like tad, etad, asmad and yushmad along with sentences

learn sanskrit pronouns


Pronouns Person
तद्, यद्, एतद्, किम् 3rd
युष्मद् 2nd
अस्मद् 1st

Pronouns have
–   different genders (masculine, feminine, neuter)
-     different numbers (singular, dual, plural)
-     different cases (nominative to locative)
-     NO FORMS OF VOCATIVE CASE
 
  • The pronouns are used to replace nouns in a sentence

 I.     Forms of तद्
1.       तद् – Third person pronoun – masculine (He)
sanskrit pronoun tad masculine table

2.       तद् – Third person pronoun – feminine (She)

sanskrit pronouns tad feminine

3.       तद् – Third person pronoun – neuter (It)

sanskrit pronouns tad neuter

 
  • These are the standard forms. Other pronouns are similar to these forms only 

II.     Forms of एतद्
1.       एतद् – Third person pronoun – masculine (He)

sanskrit pronouns etad masculine


2.       एतद् – Third person pronoun – feminine (She)

sanskrit pronoun etad feminine

3.       एतद् – Third person pronoun – neuter (It)
sanskrit pronouns etad neuter


What is the difference between तद् and एतद्?
Masculine
tad and etad

What is the difference between तद् and एतद्?
Feminine

tad and etad feminine


What is the difference between तद् and एतद्?
Neuter

sanskrit tad etad neuter


III.Forms of यद् (who, whatever)

sanskrit pronoun yah



IV.Forms of किम् (Interrogative pronoun)

sanskrit pronoun kah

 
  • अस्मद् and युष्मद् (First person and second person respectively) do not have different forms in three genders
  • They just have forms in different numbers and in different cases

Usage of किम् pronoun

1.       कः त्वम्? (Who are you?) (M/Sing)
2.       का त्वम्? (Who are you?) (F/Sing)
3.       के एते? (Who are these?) (M/Plu)
4.       किं तव नामधेयम्? (What is your name?)
5.       त्वं केन सह लिखसि? (With what are you writing?)
6.       त्वं कस्मिन् नगरे वससि? (In which city do you live?)

Other interrogative words

1.  कथम् अस्ति? How are you?
2.  कथं तव अभ्यासः? How is your study going?
3.  किं तव नामधेयम्? What is your name?
4.  किम् अस्ति? What is it?
5.  कीदृशः चित्रपटः अस्ति? What type of movie is it?
6.  कीदृशं नाटकम् अस्ति? What type of play is it?
7.  कदा गृहम् आगच्छसि? When will you come home?
8.  कदा रविवासरः? When is Sunday?
9.  किमर्थम् आपणं गच्छसि? Why/for what are you going to the market?
10.  कुत्र अस्ति तव गृहम्? Where is your home?
11.  क्व अस्ति मन्दिरम्? Where is the temple?

Usage of interrogative pronouns
  • Identify the gender of the noun (M/F/N)
  • Identify its number (Sing/Dual/Plu)
  • Identify its case (Nom to Loc)
  • Accordingly, the same case, number and gender of the किम् pronoun is to be used
  • Some examples 
    1.  बालकाः पठन्ति| के पठन्ति? (Who study? Answer-Boys study?
    2.  पाठशालायाः क्रीडाङ्गणम् अस्ति| कस्याः क्रीडाङ्गणम् अस्ति? (What has a playground? Answer-The school has a playground)
    3.  पुस्तकानि सन्ति| कानि सन्ति? (What are there? Answer-Books are there)
  • Suffixes like चित्, चन् and अपि are added to this pronoun किम् to form words having a common meaning
    sanskrit kashchit
    कञ्चित्, कञ्चन, किमपि – something(N)
     

युष्मद् – second person pronoun (you)

sanskrit pronoun yushmad

-    त्वं कुत्र गछसि? Where are you going?
-    तव नाम किम्? What is your name?
-    अहं त्वया सह खेलामि| I am playing with you.
-    यूयं चित्रपटं पश्यथ| You all see the movie.
-    जनकः युवाभ्यां धनं ददाति| Father gives money for you both.

अस्मद् – First person pronoun (me)

sanskrit asmad pronoun


-    अहम् आम्रं खादामि| I eat a mango.
-    वयं सर्वे मानवाः| We all are human beings.
-    भारतः अस्माकं देशः| India is our country. (we all)
-    सा आवयोः पुत्री| She is our daughter. (we both)
-    एषः मम कर्तव्यः| This is my duty.

 

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Learn Sanskrit - Pronouns Tables - A Complete Reference


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