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Get to know Samas in Sanskrit in easy steps | Learn Sanskrit


Compound (समास) in Sanskrit 

हनुमान् रामस्य भक्तः आसीत् |हनुमान् रामभक्तः आसीत् |
राष्ट्रध्वजः चक्रेण अङ्कितः अस्ति |राष्ट्रध्वजः चक्राङ्कितः अस्ति
  1. Clubbing of two or more words is called compound – Samas in Sanskrit
  2. Their separation is called dissolution – Samas Sigraha in Sanskrit
  3. Use of compounds makes the sentence construction precise and compact
  4. Language becomes rich and attractive
  5. Compounds add beauty to the language
नेत्राभ्यां हीनःनेत्रहीनः
कृष्णः सर्पःकृष्णसर्पः
गणेशस्य उत्सवःगणेशोत्सवः
गृहं गतःगृहगतः
ग्रन्थानाम् आलयःग्रन्थालयः

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  1. Case terminations of former constituents disappear in compound word
  2. When compound is dissolved, case terminations need to be added to the former constituent
  3. समास = सम् + आस् = to compound/to club

Basic rules of compounds

  1. Two or more constituents come together to form a compound as per their meaning
  2. While making a compound, there has to be some relation between the constituents – the words should be compatible with each other
  3. First constituent = पूर्वपद; Last constituent = उत्तरपद
  4. Compound may consist of constituents like nouns, pronouns, etc. but not verbs - verb will never be used in any compound
  5. Case terminations of पूर्वपद disappear
  6. Rules of सन्धि are observed; if necessary
[ग्रन्थानाम् आलयः = ग्रन्थ + आलयः = ग्रन्थालयः (सवर्णदीर्घसन्धि)]
Samas in Sanskrit Graphical Representation

Detailed Samas in sanskrit

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