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Nominal Roots | learn Sanskrit

In this article, learn about nominal roots of Sanskrit grammar. Know how words are formed by combining multiple alphabets together.

  • Consonant + vowel = complete letter
  • Consonant without a vowel is incomplete, cannot be pronounced without a vowel
1. क् + अ = क
2. क् + इ = कक
3. क् + ए = के
  • Consonant + consonant = conjunct consonant (संयुक्त व्यञ्जन)
1. प् + र् + अ = प्र
2. क् + ष् + अ = क्ष
3. क् + त् + अ = क्त
4. ह् + य् + अ = ह्य
5. त् + र् + अ = त्र
6. ध् + य् + अ = धय
7. ज् + ञ् + अ = ज्ञ etc.
  • By adding consonants, vowels, अनुस्वार, ववसर्ग, अनुनाससक we can make words
  • Division of words
1. प्रसादः = प् + र् + अ + स् + आ + द् + अः
2. रमा = र् + म् + आ

nominal root
nominal root dhatu
  • Nouns
1. Ending - peculiar to the Sanskrit language
2. Case - peculiar to the Sanskrit language
3. Gender - Masculine, Feminine, Neuter
4. Number - Singular, Dual, Plural (Dual category is the peculiarity of Sanskrit)


 
एकवचनम् - Singular
द्विवचनम् - Dual
बहुवचनम् - Plural
 
All nouns ending in अ and in masculine gender like गज (elephant),
हस्त (hand), कन्दुक (ball), जनक (father) etc. decline according to the above table.
 

वन - forest
वन’ – अकारान्तं (Ending in ) नपुसकलिङ्गं (Neuter) नाम (Noun)


All nouns ending in अ and in neuter gender like ज्ञान (knowledge), फल (fruit), पर्ण (leaf), जल (water), मित्र (friend), etc. decline according to the above table.

माला - garland
माला’ – आकारान्तं (Ending in ) स्त्रीलिङ्गं (Feminine) नाम (Noun)


 
All nouns ending in आ and in neuter gender like कन्या (Girl), शाटिका (sari), शाला (school), पूजा (worship), क्रीडा (play), etc. decline according to the above table.
 

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