User login

Log in with social media - OR - Fill in the form below

User login

Voice (प्रयोग) - Everything that you must known | Learn Sanskrit

 

This article is a summary of Voices (प्रयोग) in Sanskrit with an additional explanation about active (kartari) voice and passive (karmani) voices.

Introduction

  • In Sanskrit – voice means प्रयोग (प्र + युज् = construction/arrangement)
  • Sentence is a group of words which makes complete sense, which conveys some meaning
  • Verb denotes an action, which completes the meaning of a sentence. It is a very important factor of a sentence
  • Subject is that component which does the action in a sentence – doer of the action
  • Object is a thing/person on which the subject performs the action
  • Voice is the correlation of subject, object and verb

 
verb flow chart

  • Transitive verb expects an object – the sentence does not make complete sense if the object is not present
  • If object is not present in sentences like – बालकः पठति or बालिका खादति – are the verbs पठति and खादति transitive or intransitive?
  • The same trick is to be used – Who? And What? – Though the answer to What? Is not present in the sentence, it does not mean that the verb is intransitive. We can get possible answers
  • If we get answer to the question What? Then the verb has to be intransitive

 
1.Transitive verb changes to Active Voice, Passive Voice
2.Intransitive verb changes to Active Voice, Impersonal Voice
3.Impersonal Voice is never possible for transitive verb
4.Passive Voice is never possible for intransitive verb 

Explained
 
1.Transitive verb changes to Active Voice, Passive Voice
2.Intransitive verb changes to Active Voice, Impersonal Voice
3.Impersonal Voice is never possible for transitive verb
4.Passive Voice is never possible for intransitive verb 


  • In Sanskrit sentence, case of the word is very important, not the position of the word! The cases have specific meanings, so the case of words is important
  • The first word in a sentence may not necessarily be the subject of the sentence. The case of the words should, therefore, be identified
  • Nominative case- subject, Accusative case – object
  • First person – अहम् आवाम् वयम्
  • Second person – त्वम् युवाम् यूयम्
  • Third person – all other nouns and pronouns except these six

 
voices flow chart in Sanskrit
 
 
Voices table

 

Passive Verb Forms

Revision

voices revision table in Sanskrit

  • Passive verb forms may be used in –
  1. Present Tense
  2. Past Tense
  3. Imperative Mood
  4. Potential Mood

 
Passive Verb Forms
भू (1 PP) to be – Present tense (Active - भवति)

Singular Dual Plural Person
भूये भूयावहे भूयामहे 1st
भूयसे भूयेथे भूयध्वे 2nd
भूयते भूयेते भूयन्ते 3rd
 

भू (1 PP) to be – Past tense (Active - अभवत्)

Singular Dual Plural Person
अभूये अभूयावहि अभूयामहि 1st
अभूयथाः अभूयेथाम् अभूयध्वम् 2nd
अभूयत अभूयेताम् अभूयन्त 3rd
 

भू (1 PP) to be – Imperative Mood (Active - भवतु)

Singular Dual Plural Person
भूयै भूयावहै भूयामहै 1st
भूयस्व भूयेथाम् भूयध्वम् 2nd
भूयताम् भूयेताम् भूयन्ताम् 3rd
 

भू (1 PP) to be – Potential Mood (Active - भवेत्)

Singular Dual Plural Person
भूयेय भूयेवहि भूयेमहि 1st
भूयेथाः भूयेयाथाम् भूयेध्वम् 2nd
भूयेत भूयेयाताम् भूयेरन् 3rd
 
  • Past Passive Participles (PPP) can be used in place of Past tense verbs
  • Potential Passive Participles can be used in place of Potential verbs

 
Some Rules of Passive Verbs
rules of passive verb in Sanskrit

Download this page as PDF

Learn Sanskrit - Voices (प्रयोग)