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Dwandwa Samas and Its Types Simplified | Learn Sanskrit


Types of Dwandwa Samas

Dwandwa Samas (Compound) Ke Prakar

Dwandwa Samas (Compound) - Itaretar Dwandwa

  1. Both the constituents i.e. पूर्वपद and उत्तरपद are equally important (this compound is उभयपदप्रधान)
  2. Both the constituents are on the same level or are connected with the same action
  3. This type of compound is called as स्वपदविग्रहसमास i.e. same constituents of the compound are used in its dissolution
  4. But there is an addition of ‘च’ after each constituent. This addition of ‘च’ is indeed quite important and is a characteristic of द्वन्द्व समास
  5. During dissolution, the constituents are always put in Nominative case

इतरेतर द्वन्द्व

  1. Sense of every constituent is different i.e. इतर – इतर – इतरेतर
  2. Gender of the compound depends upon the last constituent of the compound (उत्तरपद)
  3. If the number of constituents is two and if they are in singular, then the compound is in dua
    सीतारामौ = सीता च रामः च |
  1. If the number of constituents is two and if they are in dual/plural then compound is in plural
    वृक्षलताः = वृक्षाः च लताः च |
  1. If the number of constituents is more than two then the compound will be in plural

पत्रपुष्पफलानि = पत्रं च पुष्पं च फलं च | OR पत्राणि च पुष्पाणि च फलानि च |


  1. रामकृष्णौ = रामः च कृष्णः च |
  2. सुखदुःखे = सुखं च दुःखं च |
  3. वृक्षलते = वृक्षः च लता च |
  4. धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाः = धर्मः च अर्थः च कामः च मोक्षः च |
  5. रामलक्ष्मणभरतशत्रुघ्नाः = रामः च लक्ष्मणः च भरतः च शत्रुघ्नः च |


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Dwandwa Samas (Compound) - Samahaar Dwandwa


समाहार द्वन्द्व

  1. समाहार द्वन्द्व समास - समाहार = सम् + आ + हृ = to bring together
  2. So, the word समाहार means group
  3. The constituents in this compound are not treated as separate units, but are considered as a ‘whole single unit’
  4. Always neuter in gender and singular in number
  5. Dissolved like इतरेतर समास
  6. With the addition of एतयोः / एतेषां समाहारः |
  7. This particular compound is prescribed for expressing –
  • Parts of body
  • Parts of army
  • Instruments and their players
  • Born enemies
  • Small insects



  1. मुखनासिकम् = मुखं च नासिका च एतयोः समाहारः |
  2. गजतुरगम् = गजः च तुरगः च एतयोः समाहारः |
  3. अहिनकुलम् = अहिः च नकुलः च एतयोः समाहारः |
  4. हस्तपादम् = हस्तौ च पादौ च एतेषां समाहारः |
  5. भेरीपटहम् = भेरीः च पटः च एतयोः समाहारः |


Mixed examples of इतरेतर द्वन्द्व and समाहार द्वन्द्व

  1. गङ्गायमुने = गङ्गा च यमुना च |
  2. लोमनाखम् = लोमानि च नखानि च एतेषां समाहारः |
  3. पशुपक्षिणः = पशवः च पक्षिणः च |
  4. सर्पगरुडम् = सर्पः च गरुडः च एतयोः समाहारः |


Bhed (Types) of Samas In Detail Download

Bhed (Types) of Samas Part 1

Bhed (Types) of Samas Part 2

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