User login

Log in with social media - OR - Fill in the form below

User login

Beginners Guide: Gerunds and Infinitive | Learn Sanskrit

 

Gerunds and Infinitive in Detail with Examples 
 

1. Root – the unit of verb the विकरणप्रत्यय and endingsE.g. पठ्, गम् (गच्छ्), कृ etc.
 
verb explanation
 
3.  Participle – Root + suffix
 
root explaination

              
root explanation


root explanation


4. Gerund – It is a type of indeclinable which is derived from Root. Note – the indeclinable seen earlier like सह, विना, अलम्, प्रति etc
                   are not derived from roots. But these indeclinable are derived from roots
 
5. Indeclinable -
सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु सर्वासु च विभक्तिषु|                           
वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् ||

  • Same form in all the three genders
  • Same form in all cases
  • Same form in all three numbers
  • Indeclinables do not change their form in any sentences
     

Types of Gerund and How they are Derived

gerund types  flow chart
 


 
त्वान्त and ल्यबन्त will always state prior action
 

Derivation of त्वान्त and ल्यबन्त 
Use of Prefix and Suffix in Gerund in Sanskrit. 
 

1. त्वान्तRoot + त्वा suffix / इत्वा (occasionally)     E.g. पठ् + त्वा = पठित्वा
     भाष् + त्वा = भाषित्वा
     नी + त्वा = नीत्वा
     कृ + त्वा = कृत्वा
 
2. ल्यबन्त = ल्यप् (य) + अन्त =
Prefix + root + ल्यप् (य)Note – This suffix ल्यप् (य) cannot be added to root alone.
There must be a prefix to the root. In the presence of a prefix only,
ल्यप् (य) can be added, else त्वा should be used
E.g. सम् + पूज् + ल्यप् (य) = सम्पूज्य (In the absence of prefix, the indeclinable will be पूजयित्वा – त्वा will be added)
       आ + गम् + ल्यप् (य) = आगम्य / आगत्य
       आ + दा + ल्यप् (य) = आदाय
       वि + चिन्त् + ल्यप् (य) = विचिन्त्य
 

  • Root + तुम् / इतुम् = तुमन्त     
    E.g. पा + तुम् = पातुम्

           पठ् + इतुम् = पठितुम्
 

  • Prefix + Root + तुम् / इतुम् = तुमन्त 
     
    E.g. आ + गम् + तुम् = आगन्तुम्

            वि + चिन्त् + तुम् = विचिन्तयितुम्
 



तुमन्त conveys to senses -
1.in order to
2.for the sake of 

  • तुमन्त (infinitive) + verb अर्ह् = request / wish

E.g. भवती श्रोतुम् अर्हति | you are able to hear / you can here (literal)
     बालकः पाठशालां गन्तुम् अर्हति | The boy can go to school
 

  1. बालिकाः पठितुं पाठशालां गच्छन्ति | The girls go school in order to study
  2. भक्तः पूजयितुं देवालयं गच्छति | The devotee goes to the temple to worship
  3. खगाः स्नातुं तडागम् आगच्छन्ति | Birds arrive at the lake to bathe


Learn Gerunds and Infinitive in Detail and many Other sanskrit Courses



Gerunds – Examples with Defination

 
gerund types


त्वान्त Gerund

  1. बालकः पाठशालां गच्छति | बालकः पुस्तकं पठति च |

      Boy goes to school. And boy reads a book
 
Subjects in both the sentences are same
The verbs in both the sentences are different, गच्छति and पठति, respectively
 
The earlier action is गच्छति (to go) and later action is पठति (to read); because the boy reads the book,
after going to school.
 
The त्वान्त and ल्यबन्त are पूर्वकालवाचक धातुसाधित अव्यय – they are the indeclinables derived from
the root and they state the sense of previous action.
In this particular example, we will have to derive त्वान्त gerund from the first root गम् (गच्छ्)
 
गम् + त्वा = गत्वा
बालकः पाठशालां गच्छति | बालकः पुस्तकं पठति |
बालकः पाठशालां गत्वा पुस्तकं पठति | After going to the school, boy reads a book.
 
2. नीता पत्रं लिखति | नीता गृहकार्यं करोति च |     
    Neeta writes a letter and Neeta does household work
     नीता पत्रं लिखति | नीता गृहकार्यं करोति |
     नीता पत्रं लिखित्वा गृहकार्यं करोति |
    After writing a letter, Neeta does household work
 
3. वीणा मधुरं खादति | मेधा दुग्धं पिबति |     
    Subjects of the sentences is different. Though the actions of both the sentences are different
    from each other, but the subjects are not the same. Here, we cannot use त्वान्त gerund.
 

ल्यबन्त Gerund

4. बालकः गृहम् आगच्छति | बालकः जलं पिबति च |   
   Boy comes home. And boy drinks water.
 
Subjects in both the sentences are same
The verbs in both the sentences are different, आगच्छति and पिबति, respectively
 
The boy drinks water after coming home. Hence, coming home is the earlier action
 
The त्वान्त and ल्यबन्त are पूर्वकालवाचक धातुसाधित अव्यय – they are the indeclinables derived
from the root and they state the sense of previous action.

  • In this particular example, we will have to derive ल्यबन्त gerund from the first root गम् (गच्छ्).
    We have to use ल्यबन्त gerund only because here, आ is the prefix used before the root [आ + गम् + ल्यप् (य)]

 
बालकः गृहम् आगच्छति | बालकः जलं पिबति |
बालकः गृहम् आगम्य / आगत्य जलं पिबति |
After coming home, the boy drinks water

5. बालिका देवं प्रणमति | बालिका अध्ययनं करोति च |     
    Girl salutes God. And girl studies.
     बालिका देवं प्रणमति | बालिका अध्ययनं करोति |
     बालिका देवं प्रणम्य अध्ययनं करोति |
     After saluting to God, the girl studies.
 
6. सीता चित्राणि आलिखति | राधा भोजनं पचति |   
      Subjects of the sentences is different.
     Though the actions of both the sentences are different  
      from each other, but the subjects are not the same.
      Here, we cannot use ल्यबन्त gerund.
 
When the subjects are same in both the sentences, only then त्वान्त and ल्यबन्त
gerunds can be used. If subjects are different, these gerunds cannot be used

Download this page as PDF for free

Part 1
Part 2