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Complete Guide for Imperative Mood | Learn Sanskrit


Types Of Moods with definition:


Imperative Mood - AP roots

 आत्मनेपदी endings of Imperative mood

Singular Dual Plural Person
आवहै आमहै 1st
स्व इथाम् ध्वम् 2nd
ताम् इताम् अन्ताम् 3rd

Imperative mood = Root + विकरणप्रत्यय + endings of person
भाष् (1 AP) – to speak
भाष् + अ + ताम् = भाषताम्
भाष् + अ + इताम् = भाषेताम्
भाष् + अ + अन्ताम् = भाषन्ताम् (single अ)
भाष् + अ + स्व = भाषस्व
भाष् + अ + इथाम्  = भाषेथाम्
भाष् + अ + ध्वम् = भाषध्वम्
भाष् + अ + = भाषै
भाष् + अ + आवहै = भाषावहै
भाष् + अ + आमहै = भाषामहै
(अ changes to when followed by endings beginning with व्, म् )
 सेव् (1 AP) – to serve

Singular Dual Plural Person
सेवै सेवावहै सेवामहै 1st
सेवस्व सेवेथाम् सेवध्वम् 2nd
सेवताम् सेवेताम् सेवन्ताम् 3rd

Similarly, रम् (to enjoy), राज् (to govern/glow), लभ् (to obtain) etc. will be declined

मन् (4 AP) – to accept/believe

Singular Dual Plural Person
मन्यै मन्यावहै मन्यामहै 1st
मन्यस्व मन्येथाम् मन्यध्वम् 2nd
मन्यताम् मन्येताम् मन्यन्ताम् 3rd

Similarly, खिद् (to feel tired), युध् (to fight), etc will be declined

मुच्-मुञ्च् (6 AP) – to liberate

Singular Dual Plural Person
मुञ्चै मुञ्चावहै मुञ्चामहै 1st
मुञ्चस्व मुञ्चेथाम् मुञ्चध्वम् 2nd
मुञ्चताम् मुञ्चेताम् मुञ्चन्ताम् 3rd

Similarly, मिल् (to meet), कृष् (to plough), etc will be declined
पूज् (10 AP) – to worship

Singular Dual Plural Person
पूजयै पूजयावहै पूजयामहै 1st
पूजयस्व पूजयेथाम् पूजयध्वम् 2nd
पूजयताम् पूजयेताम् पूजयन्ताम् 3rd

Similarly, मन्त्र् (to council/discuss), चिन्त् (to think), रच् (to arrange) etc will be declined
Some roots of the 10th group are उभयपदी because PP endings as well as AP endings can be attached to the root like पूज् (to worship), कथ् (to tell), रच् (to arrange), चिन्त् (to think) etc


Subjects for verbs

Singular Dual Plural Person
आवां पठाव/भाषावहै वयं पठाम/भाषामहै 1st
सः/सा/तत् पठतु/भाषताम्
तौ/ते/ते पठताम्/भाषेताम्
ते/ताः/तानि पठन्तु/भाषन्ताम् 3rd
  • Imperative forms have sense of order
  • First person - this sense of order is not possible
  • We do not give orders to ourselves!
  • So, it has a sense of compulsion – Should be done
  • Second person – only have sense of order, not of compulsion
  • Third person rarely used, only in the case of भवान्(M)/भवती(F)
  • भवान्(M)/भवती(F) are pronouns used in Sanskrit with the sense of respect


Singular भवान्/भवती (You) पठतु/भाषताम्
Dual भवन्तौ/भवत्यौ (You both) पठताम्/भाषेताम्
Plural भवन्तः/भवत्यः
(You all)

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Imperative Mood - PP roots



  • Formula for making a root = Roots + विकरण प्रत्यय + endings of a person
  • Some forms are not indicative of tense
  • They do not represent any action
  • They suggest us some intention which is in our mind
  • Sometimes it is an order, suggestion, duty, request, wish etc
  • In Sanskrit grammar, it is called as mood = अर्थ
  • आज्ञार्थ / लोट् and विध्यर्थ / विधिलिङ्ग are technical terms


  • Order/demand/blessings/request - Imperative mood
  • Wish/possibility/capability – Potential mood


Class 1 – अ Class 6 – अ
Class 4 – य Class 10 – अय

Imperative mood = Root + विकरणप्रत्यय + endings of person

परस्मैपदी endings of Imperative mood

Singular Dual Plural Person
आनि आव आम 1st
- तम् 2nd
तु ताम् अन्तु 3rd

पठ् (1 PP) – to read/study
पठ् + अ + तु = पठतु
पठ् + अ + ताम् = पठताम्
पठ् + अ + अन्तु = पठन्तु (single अ)
पठ् + अ + - = पठ
पठ् + अ + तम् = पठतम्
पठ् + अ + = पठत
पठ् + अ + आनि = पठानि
पठ् + अ + आव = पठाव
पठ् + अ + आम = पठाम
(अ changes to when followed by endings beginning with व्, म् )

वद् (1 PP) – to speak

Singular Dual Plural Person
वदानि वदाव वदाम 1st
वद वदतम् वदत 2nd
वदतु वदताम् वदन्तु 3rd

Similarly, चल् (to walk), धाव् (to run), हस् (to smile/laugh) etc. will be declined

नृत् (4 PP) – to dance

Singular Dual Plural Person
नृत्यानि नृत्याव नृत्याम 1st
नृत्य नृत्यतम् नृत्यत 2nd
नृत्यतु नृत्यताम् नृत्यन्तु 3rd

Similarly, सिध् (to originate/arise), नश् (to perish), etc. will be declined

लिख् (6 PP) – to write

Singular Dual Plural Person
लिखानि लिखाव लिखाम 1st
लिख लिखतम् लिखत 2nd
लिखतु लिखताम् लिखन्तु 3rd

Similarly, विश् (to enter), दिश् (to show), etc. will be declined

पूज् (10 PP) – to worship

Singular Dual Plural Person
पूजयानि पूजयाव पूजयाम 1st
पूजय पूजयतम् पूजयत 2nd
पूजयतु पूजयताम् पूजयन्तु 3rd

Similarly, मन्त्र् (to council/discuss), चिन्त् (to think), रच् (to arrange) etc. will be decline

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