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Learn Sanskrit - Verb Tables - Present Tense - A complete Reference

sanskrit verbs

  • Verbs are called as क्रियापद-s       

      E.g. - रामः फलं खादति| (खाद्)                
           - बालकौ धावतः| (धाव्)
           - मयूराः नृत्यन्ति| (नृत्)
           - अहं पठामि| (पठ्)
           - वयं चलामः| (चल्)

  • In the Sanskrit language, more than 2000 verbal roots exist
  • These are grouped by Sanskrit grammarian named पाणिनि
  • They are divided into 10 groups called as गण-s

sanskrit verbs

  • How to differentiate between these groups?
  • Each group has a differentiating sign
  • It is called as the विकरणप्रत्यय
1st 4th 6th 10thअय

How to form verbs?
1.   Verbal roots e.g. खाद्, चल्, पठ् etc.
2.   विकरणप्रत्यय
3.   Endings of person
Verbal root + विकरणप्रत्यय = अङ्ग of root
पठ् + अ = पठ

अङ्ग of root + ending of person = Verb

sanskrit verbs

  • Like any other language, there are three tenses in Sanskrit also –

-    Present tense
-    Past tense
-    Future tense


परस्मैपदी endings for Present Tense

sanskrit verbs
Verbal root + विकरणप्रत्यय = अङ्ग of root
अङ्ग of root + ending of person = Verb

Verbal root + विकरणप्रत्यय + ending of person = Verb
पठ् + अ + ति = पठति
पठ् + अ + तः = पठतः
पठ् + अ + अन्ति = पठन्ति (single )
पठ् + अ + सि = पठसि
पठ् + अ + थः = पठथः
पठ् + अ + थ = पठथ
पठ् + अ + मि = पठामि
(अ changes to when followed by endings beginning with व्, म् )
पठ् + अ + वः = पठावः
पठ् + अ + मः = पठामः

पठ् – to read/learn (1stगण) PP Present tense

Verbs - Present Tense Tables for PP Endings

  • Changes occurring in certain verbal roots

गम्   ->  गच्छ्   ->  गच्छति (to go)
इष्   ->  इच्छ्   ->   इच्छति (to wish)
भू   ->  भव् (to be)
दा   ->  यच्छ् (to give)
स्मृ   ->  स्मर् (to remember)
नी   ->  नय् (to take away)
दृश्   ->  पश्य् (to see)
शुभ्   ->  शोभ् (to beautify/ to adorn)
मुद्   ->  मोद् (to be happy/glad/delighted) etc.
वद् (1 PP) – to speak

Singular Dual Plural Person
वदामि वदावः वदामः 1st
वदसि वदथः वदथ 2nd
वदति वदतः वदन्ति 3rd

Similarly, चल् (to walk), धाव् (to run), हस् (to smile/laugh) etc. will be declined
नृत् (4 PP) – to dance

Singular Dual Plural Person
नृत्यामि नृत्यावः नृत्यामः 1st
नृत्यसि नृत्यथः नृत्यथ 2nd
नृत्यति नृत्यतः नृत्यन्ति 3rd

Similarly, सिध् (to originate/arise), नश् (to perish), etc. will be declined
लिख् (6 PP) – to write

Singular Dual Plural Person
लिखामि लिखावः लिखामः 1st
लिखसि लिखथः लिखथ 2nd
लिखति लिखतः लिखन्ति 3rd

Similarly, विश् (to enter), दिश् (to show), etc. will be declined
कथ् (10 PP) – to tell

Singular Dual Plural Person
कथयामि कथयावः कथयामः 1st
कथयसि कथयथः कथयथ 2nd
कथयति कथयतः कथयन्ति 3rd

Similarly, पूज् (to worship), चिन्त् (to think), रच् (to arrange) etc. will be declined
In English -

Pronouns Person
I, We 1st
You 2nd
He, She, It, They 3rd

Persons in Sanskrit

Singular Dual Plural Person
(Both of us)
(All of us)
(Both of you)
(All of you)
सः (He)
बालकः (one boy)
वृक्षः (one tree)
तौ (Both)
बालकौ (two boys)
वृक्षौ (two trees)
ते (All)
बालकाः (many trees)
वृक्षाः (many trees)
सा (She)
बालिका (one girl)
छात्रा (one girl student)
ते (Both)
बालिके (two girls)
छात्रे (two girl students)
ताः (All)
बालिकाः (many girls)
छात्राः (many girl students)
तत् (That)
वनम् (one forest)
पत्रम् (one leaf)
ते (Both)
वने (two forests)
पत्रे (two leaves)
तानि (All)
वनानि (many forests)
पत्राणि (many leaves)

Application of verbs in sentences

Singular Dual Plural Person
अहं वदामि
(I speak)
आवां वदावः
(We both speak)
वयं वदामः
(We all speak)
त्वं वदसि
(You speak)
युवां वदथः
(You both speak)
यूयं वदथ
(You all speak)
सा     वदति
(He/ She/ It speaks)
ते     वदतः
(They both speak)
ताः    वदन्ति
(They all speak)

In the same way, other verbal forms of other verbal roots may also be applied

Singular Dual Plural Person
अहं चलामि आवां चलावः
वयं चलामः 1st
त्वं चलसि
युवां चलथः
यूयं चलथ
सा     चलति
ते     चलतः
ताः    चलन्ति

In this way, sentences can be made in Sanskrit – few examples
1.  I run – अहं धावामि| (अहं – 1st person singular. So मि used)
2.  She walks – सा चलति| (सा – 3rd person singular. So ति used)
3.  Boys play – बालकाः क्रीडन्ति| (बालकाः – 3rd people plural. So न्ति used)
4.  Both of us study – आवां पठावः| (आवां – 1st person dual. So वः used)

आत्मनेपदी endings of Present Tense

sanskrit verbs tables

Verbal root + विकरणप्रत्यय + ending of person = Verb
·         This formula can be applied to PP roots as well as AP roots
·         The difference between the two is just in the endings used
·         Also, the विकरणप्रत्यय-s for PP roots and AP roots belonging to the same गण will also be same
भाष् (1 AP) – to speak
भाष् + अ + ते = भाषते
भाष् + अ + इते = भाषेते
भाष् + अ + अन्ते = भाषन्ते (single )
भाष् + अ + से = भाषसे
भाष् + अ + इथे = भाषेथे
भाष् + अ + ध्वे = भाषध्वे
भाष् + अ + इ = भाषे
भाष् + अ + वहे = भाषावहे
भाष् + अ + महे = भाषामहे
(अ changes to when followed by endings beginning with व्, म् )

Verbs - Present Tense Tables for AP Endings

भाष् (1 AP) – to speak

Singular Dual Plural Person
भाषे भाषावहे भाषामहे 1st
भाषसे भाषेथे भाषध्वे 2nd
भाषते भाषेते भाषन्ते 3rd

सेव् (1 AP) – to serve

Singular Dual Plural Person
सेवे सेवावहे सेवामहे 1st
सेवसे सेवेथे सेवध्वे 2nd
सेवते सेवेते सेवन्ते 3rd

Similarly, रम् (to enjoy), राज् (to govern/glow), लभ् (to obtain) etc. will be declined
मन् (4 AP) – to accept

Singular Dual Plural Person
मन्ये मन्यावहे मन्यामहे 1st
मन्यसे मन्येथे मन्यध्वे 2nd
मन्यते मन्येते मन्यन्ते 3rd

Similarly, खिद् (to feel tired), युध् (to fight), etc. will be declined
दिश् (6 AP) – to order

Singular Dual Plural Person
दिशे दिशावहे दिशामहे 1st
दिशसे दिशेथे दिशध्वे 2nd
दिशते दिशेते दिशन्ते 3rd

Similarly, मिल् (to meet), कृष् (to plough), etc. will be declined
मन्त्र् (10 AP) – to council/discuss

Singular Dual Plural Person
मन्त्रये मन्त्रयावहे मन्त्रयामहे 1st
मन्त्रयसे मन्त्रयेथे मन्त्रयध्वे 2nd
मन्त्रयते मन्त्रयेते मन्त्रयन्ते 3rd

Similarly, अर्थ् (to wish/request), गण् (to count/take notice of), etc. will be declined
Some roots of the 10th group are उभयपदी because PP endings as well as AP endings can be attached to the root like पूज् (to worship), कथ् (to tell), रच् (to arrange), चिन्त् (to think).

PP forms

Singular Dual Plural Person
पूजयामि पूजयावः पूजयामः 1st
पूजयसि पूजयथः पूजयथ 2nd
पूजयति पूजयतः पूजयन्ति 3rd

AP forms

Singular Dual Plural Person
पूजयये पूजयावहे पूजयामहे 1st
पूजयसे पूजयेथे पूजयध्वे 2nd
पूजयते पूजयेते पूजयन्ते 3rd

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Learn Sanskrit - Introduction to Sanskrit Verbs

Learn Sanskrit - Present Tense PP Verbs

Learn Sanskrit - Present Tense AP Verbs

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