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Past Tense | Lang lakar | लङ्लकार | - Learn Sanskrit


 Past Tense in Sanskrit for beginners :

You will learn about past tense (lang laakaar/लङ्लकार)  with examples and tips of how to construct sentences in the past tense.



परस्मैपदी endings of Past Tense

Singular Dual Plural Person
अम् 1st
स् (ः) तम् 2nd
त् ताम् अन् 3rd

 अ + Verbal root + विकरणप्रत्यय + ending of person = Verb

  • अ is added before the verbal root
  • Unless अ is added to any verbal root, it will not be considered as a past form
  • So, this अ is very important
  • Because this अ indicates that it is the past form of any verbal root


पठ् (1 PP) – to speak

अ + पठ् + अ + त् = अपठत्

  • Note – the हलन्त त् (half त्) is indication of PP ending
  • In the similar way we can make other past forms of the verbal root पठ्

 पठ् (1 PP) – to speak

Singular Dual Plural Person
अपठम् अपठाव अपठाम 1st
अपठः अपठतम् अपठत 2nd
अपठत् अपठताम् अपठन् 3rd

Similarly, रम् (to enjoy), धाव् (to run), हस् (laugh/smile) etc. will be declined

नश् (1 PP) – to perish

Singular Dual Plural Person
अनश्यम् अनश्याव अनश्याम 1st
अनश्यः अनश्यतम् अनश्यत 2nd
अनश्यत् अनश्यताम् अनश्यन् 3rd

Similarly, सिध् (to originate/be successful), नृत् (to dance), etc. will be declined

लिख् (6 PP) – to write

Singular Dual Plural Person
अलिखम् अलिखाव अलिखाम 1st
अलिखः अलिखतम् अलिखत 2nd
अलिखत् अलिखताम् अलिखन् 3rd

Similarly, प्रच्छ - पृच्छ् (to ask), इष् - इच्छ् (to wish/desire), etc. will be declined

कथ् (10 PP) – to tell

Singular Dual Plural Person
अकथयम् अकथयाव अकथयाम 1st
अकथयः अकथयतम् अकथयत 2nd
अकथयत् अकथयताम् अकथयन् 3rd

Similarly, पूज् (to worship), चिन्त् (to think), रच् (to arrange) etc. will be declined

आत्मनेपदी endings of Present Tense

Singular Dual Plural Person
वहि महि 1st
थास् (थाः) आथाम् ध्वम् 2nd
आताम् अन्त 3rd
  • Endings आथाम्      इथाम् and आताम्      इताम् in the case of 1st, 4th, 6th, and 10th groups only
  • In other remaining groups i.e. 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 8th and 9th this change will not take place

भाष् (1 AP) – to speak

अ + भाष् + अ + त = अभाषत

  • Note – this त is not हलन्त (half त्). It is, therefore an AP ending
  • Please do not get confused between the two endings as each of them belong to two different types of roots


भाष् (1 AP) – to speak

Singular Dual Plural Person
अभाषे अभाषावहि अभाषामहि 1st
अभाषथाः अभाषेथाम् अभाषध्वम् 2nd
अभाषत अभाषेताम् अभाषन्त 3rd

Similarly, सेव् (to serve), लभ् (to obtain) etc. will be declined

मन् (4 AP) – to accept

Singular Dual Plural Person
अमन्ये अमन्यावहि अमन्यामहि 1st
अमन्यथाः अमन्येथाम् अमन्यध्वम् 2nd
अमन्यत अमन्येताम् अमन्यन्त 3rd

Similarly, युध् (to fight), विद् (to be/exist), etc. will be declined

दिश् (6 AP) – to order

Singular Dual Plural Person
अदिशे अदिशावहि अदिशामहि 1st
अदिशथाः अदिशेथाम् अदिशध्वम् 2nd
अदिशत दिशेताम् अदिशन्त 3rd

Similarly, मिल् (to meet), कृष् (to plough), etc. will be declined

मन्त्र् (10 AP) – to council/discuss

Singular Dual Plural Person
अमन्त्रये अमन्त्रयावहि अमन्त्रयामहि 1st
अमन्त्रयथाः अमन्त्रयेथाम् अमन्त्रयध्वम् 2nd
अमन्त्रयत अमन्त्रयेताम् अमन्त्रयन्त 3rd

Similarly, पूज् (to worship), अर्थ् (to wish/request), गण् (to count/take notice of), etc. will be declined

Few examples –

  1. I have studied – अहम् अपठम्|
  2. Boys have played – बालकाः अक्रीडन्|
  3. Pandava-s have fought – पाण्डवाः अयुध्यन्त|
  4. We have spoken – वयम् अभाषामहि| (AP) or वयम् अवदाम| (PP)

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Learn Sanskrit - Past tense


Rashmi Bansal's picture

Nicely explained