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Learn Sanskrit - Karak Vibhakti - Case Table

karaka introduction

  • Nouns – बाल (boy), देव (God), बालिका (girl), वन (forest) etc.
  • Verbs – चल् (to walk), पठ् (to read/to study), हस् (to laugh), धाव् (to run) etc.
  • The important components denoting a noun –
  1. Ending in – अ, आ, इ, ई, etc.
  2. Gender (लिङ्ग) – Masculine (पुल्लिङ्ग), Feminine (स्त्रीलिङ्ग), Neuter (नपुसकलिङ्ग)
  3. Number (वचन) – Singular (एकवचन), Dual (द्विवचन), Plural (बहुवचन)
  4. Case (विभाक्ति) – Nominative (प्रथमा), Accusative (द्वितीया), Instrumental(तृतीया), Dative (चतुर्थी), Ablative (पञ्चमी), Genitive (षष्ठी), Locative (सप्तमी), Vocative (संबोधन)


Each of the above cases has a particular meaning attached to it. The concept of ‘कारक’ helps us to understand it!

  • In any sentence, the ‘VERB’ is the most important thing
  • Because of the verb, we understand the meaning of any sentence
  • For example, in English - 

1.  I mango. There is a sense of incompleteness
2.  I eat a mango. The sentence is complete; we get to know the meaning of this sentence.

  • Similarly, in Sanskrit too,

1.  रामः फलं (Ram fruit) - the sentence is incomplete
2.  रामः फलं खादति (Ram eats fruit) – The sentence is complete and the complete meaning is understood

  • A verb is the most important aspect to understand the meaning of the sentence. It gives completeness to the sentence

क्रियापद – Verb -> पद (word), क्रिया (action) -> a word that tells an action

karaka introduction

  • These types of relations are called ‘कारक’ in Sanskrit
  • कारक is one which follows an action and also denotes the relation between noun and verb
     
  • Sanskrit Karak Vibhakti Table -
    Sanskrit karak vibhakti rachna



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