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Learn Sanskrit - Karak Vibhakti - Case Table
Nouns – बाल (boy), देव (God), बालिका (girl), वन (forest) etc.
Verbs – चल् (to walk), पठ् (to read/to study), हस् (to laugh), धाव् (to run) etc.
The important components denoting a noun –
Ending in – अ, आ, इ, ई, etc.
Gender (लिङ्ग) – Masculine (पुल्लिङ्ग), Feminine (स्त्रीलिङ्ग), Neuter (नपुसकलिङ्ग)
Number (वचन) – Singular (एकवचन), Dual (द्विवचन), Plural (बहुवचन)
Case (विभाक्ति) – Nominative (प्रथमा), Accusative (द्वितीया), Instrumental(तृतीया), Dative (चतुर्थी), Ablative (पञ्चमी), Genitive (षष्ठी), Locative (सप्तमी), Vocative (संबोधन)
Each of the above cases has a particular meaning attached to it. The concept of ‘
’ helps us to understand it!
In any sentence, the ‘VERB’ is the most important thing
Because of the verb, we understand the meaning of any sentence
For example, in English -
1. I mango. There is a sense of incompleteness
2. I eat a mango. The sentence is complete; we get to know the meaning of this sentence.
Similarly, in Sanskrit too,
1. रामः फलं (Ram fruit) - the sentence is incomplete
2. रामः फलं खादति (Ram eats fruit) – The sentence is complete and the complete meaning is understood
A verb is the most important aspect to understand the meaning of the sentence. It gives completeness to the sentence
क्रियापद – Verb -> पद (word), क्रिया (action) -> a word that tells an action
These types of relations are called ‘कारक’ in Sanskrit
कारक is one which follows an action and also denotes the relation between noun and verb
Sanskrit Karak Vibhakti Table -
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